Morning Glory: A Historical Psychedelic

Morning glory species such as Ipomea violacea or Ipomea tricolor have seeds with a unique property that earned them a place within the traditional psychedelic and visionary practices across many cultures. The Chontal Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico, the Aztecs, the Zapotec, and other cultures utilized these seeds to communicate with the Gods. The Aztecs believed morning glories were had a unique ability to open divine portals. The Chontal Indians believed that a highly evolved spirit inhabited these plants, which could connect them to the spiritual realm.

Ipomoea_tricolor-1
Ipomea tricolor: “Heavenly Blue” Source
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Ipomea violacea. Source

Morning glory seeds contain ergine, or lysergic acid amine (LSA). LSA is similar (though weaker) in effect and structure to LSD, and is considered a Schedule III drug by the US. The seeds are legal, but possession of the purified compound is not. Consumption can produce heightened senses, synesthesia, euphoria, mild hallucinations, anxiety, panic, and/or nausea.

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Ergine (d-lysergic acid amide) molecular structure. Source

Sources Cited

http://entheology.com/plants/ipomoea-violacea-morning-glory/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4462041/

http://www.ehow.com/about_5073540_psychedelic-effects-morning-glory-seeds.html

How to Grow Morning Glories From Seeds

lattive
Morning glories need full sun, a support structure, and to be planted after all danger of frost is past to grow. Source.

Before planting:

  1. Placement: Morning glories need at least 6-8 hours of sun daily and a support structure (lattice, fence, gazebo etc.) to allow young plants to climb.
  2. Soil: Use well-drained soil, and avoid Nitrogen-rich fertilizers which produce more leaves and fewer flowers.
  3. Remove any weeds/other garden debris from plant site.
  4. Pick your species.  Click here to view a list of 15 morning glory varieties and purchase seeds.
  5. Nick pointed end with nail clipper and soak seeds in water for 12 hours prior to planting for increased germination rate.

When planting:

  1. Plant outdoors in full sun, 1/2 inch deep in prepared soil, after the last frost and average daily temperature exceeds 65⁰F (18⁰C).
  2. Plant 6-8 seeds per foot of space. After sprouting, thin seedlings to 12 in apart.

After planting:

  1. Keep soil moist while germinating.
  2. Seeds will germinate in 5-21 days.

Sources:

https://www.planetnatural.com/growing-morning-glory/

https://www.swallowtailgardenseeds.com/vines/morningglory.html

<https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qaa1oBqV0a0&feature=youtu.be&gt;

 

Convolvulaceae Characteristics

The Family Convolvulaceae is known as the “Morning Glory” family, and contains 50-55 genera and about 1600-1700 species. Most are herbaceous climbing/trailing vines, but some are shrubs and trees.

Characteristics of Family Convolvulaceae:

  • Simple, alternate leaves: leaves possess a single, undivided leaf blade at each node
alternate-leaves
Simple, alternate leaf arrangement. Source
  • Flowers: 5-merous actinomorphic (5-point radial symmetry), often bisexual and showy
    • Corolla (petals) fused into a tube
    • Stamen (pollen producing organ) fused to petals
    • Compound pistil composed of 2 or more fused carpals (ovule-bearing female reproductive parts, possibly modified leaves)
    • Sepals: 5 unfused, overlapping sepals (leaf-like, lowermost part of flower that protect flower as a bud)
5meral-symmetry
Convolvulaceae flowers show 5-merous actinomorphic symmetry with fused corolla. Ipomoea alba. Source
  • Herbaceous parts tend to be twining (winding around something)
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Stems of Convolvulaceae are often twining. Ipomoea sp. Source
  • Fruits: tend to be capsules (simple, dry fruits that split along pores/sutures to release seeds)
capsule-fruits
Convolvulaceae fruits are often capsules containing seeds. Convolvulus arvensis. Source

Familiar members of the Family Convolvulaceae are Morning Glory and Sweet Potatoes (Genus Ipomoea), Bindweed (Genus Convolvulus), and Dodder (Genus Cuscuta).

Sources:

http://botany.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/301Manhart/Dicots/Asteridae/Con/Con.html

http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/phylo_convolvul.htm

http://courses.washington.edu/bot113/spring/LabExercises/Repromorphhigh.pdf

https://cals.arizona.edu/herbarium/sites/cals.arizona.edu.herbarium/files/old_site/assoc/people/daustin/convolv.html